Reserve bank of New Zealand (RBNZ) is the central bank of New Zealand and is responsible for maintaining financial system stability of the country.
The bank was founded in 1939 and has a substantial difference from other central banks; the financial institution entirely belongs to the government and is centralized. This fact provides the bank with great power in terms of the country’s monetary policy regulation.
The bank carries out a wide range of tasks, from operating monetary policy to monitoring and supervising the health of the financial system, maintaining foreign reserves, operating in the financial markets if necessary, and issuing currency as required.
The Reserve Bank uses monetary policy to maintain price stability and prevent sharp economic changes as well as changes of interest rates and currency rates. The Bank implements monetary policy by setting the Official Cash Rate (OCR), which is reviewed eight times a year at regular intervals as well as at unintended meetings in emergency situations. The New Zealand Reserve Bank’s decision is to keep the OCR for crediting commercial banks at 2.5 percent.
Supervision over the financial system and financial markets activities
The Reserve bank controls the New Zealand banking system.
The reserve bank regulates banks, insurance companies and non-bank credit-depository institutions (including the financial companies that accept deposits from public, building societies and credit unions), in order to support stability and efficiency of the financial system. The bank is also charged with the task with fulfillment of obligations to deter money laundering and terrorist financing (known as the struggle against money laundering or AML).
The reserve bank demands quarterly accounts of profits from all banks in the country, thus controlling the currency rate along with reporting important information concerning commercial banks financial conditions and activities.
The bank started issuing banknotes in 1934. In 1985 the New Zealand dollar obtained the status of free currency, and since then began the free float on the international exchange market. The RBNZ liabilities to NZD are practically the same as to other central banks when speaking about the unitary right of issuing currency. Besides, the bank follows up the events and news that may influence currency pairs that include NZD, considering its strong and weak sides and potential impact on the economy of New Zealand.
The Reserve Bank’s senior management team is made up of the Governor, a Deputy Governor, a Head of Operations, and the heads of the Bank’s various departments. The distinguished feature of the SBNZ that differs it from other central banks is that the monetary policy final decisions belong to the Governor of the central bank.
The Reserve Bank has a Board of Directors whose primary function is to review the performance of the Governor and the Bank. The Board holds regular meetings at which it receives extensive briefings on the Bank’s activities, decisions and policies. At these meetings the Board also provides advice to the Governor. Each year the Board writes an assessment of the Bank and the Governor’s performance, which provides advice to the Minister of Finance and made public later in the Bank’s Annual Report.